February 2023


The toughest part of Identity and Access Management (IAM) technology is making it work with multi-vendor infrastructure and the growing number of applications that enterprises rely on to do business. This is primarily because the last-mile integration of applications and identity systems has traditionally been hard coded to allow the exchange of information about a user, their identity, roles and access permissions.

In the early days of identity, organizations were required to write bespoke code to integrate the app with the identity system. With the advent of software-as-a-service (SaaS) apps, this model was no longer viable because you don’t control the code of a SaaS application.

Instead, identity vendors began building and maintaining connectors to support individual apps as needed. This model worked because app vendors shared the connectors among all of their customers, who were happy that they no longer needed to write their own integration code.

This approach was initially scalable as there were only a dozen or so popular SaaS apps. However, as these numbers grew, it became problematic to maintain and test the App Connectors needed to keep them working.

The customers had no objections as the connectors were managed and delivered by the identity system providers. But increasingly, those connectors could not support apps that did not work with identity standards such as SAML or OpenID Connect (OIDC).

Identity Orchestration Recipe

In the cloud era, connectors are reaching their breaking point. Just as they were created to address an industry pain point, a new model designed to solve the connector impasse is called the Identity Orchestration Recipe.

This evolutionary approach replaces connectors by eliminating the need for app connectors in the first place. It securely addresses ‘last-mile’ integration with a universal session that works with any app running anywhere, eliminating the need to rewrite apps.

Identity orchestration enables customers to define use cases in terms of repeating patterns and templates called recipes, which shifts the focus of work from plumbing to innovation and allows businesses to focus on higher-level concerns such as customer experience. allows to do. This is possible because security is built-in to the plug-and-play integration model that doesn’t require custom code.

Some examples of uses include implementing personalized user journeys, app modernization, implementing passwordless authentication, supporting multiple identity providers (IDPs), and more. Each recipe can be applied to hundreds of apps.

Consider Lego building blocks. Anyone with a big enough box of Legos can build something amazing – provided they have the time and skill. For most people, though, it’s far easier to use a pre-designed kit to build a Star Wars Millennium Falcon. You get what you want faster and more easily if everything you need is right there, and you can assemble it by following simple instructions.

Identity orchestration recipes work in much the same fashion and are focused on achieving a desired result.


Implementing orchestration recipes is as simple as browsing the ‘cookbook’ of use case recipes and integrating them into the fabric of your identity using a plug-and-play setup. Here are some easy steps to help you get started:

  • Create a list of apps, users, and identity systems: What materials do you have to work with? Start with a list of your system, then a list of your applications. Finally, make a list of your users: are you talking about customers, employees, partners, or all of the above?
  • Connect Content: Once you have the systems, applications, and users buckets worked out, the recipe comes down to how you connect or integrate those three circles of users, apps, and systems (identity providers, authentication, and other tools).
  • Apply Recipes: like boiling an egg; It can be as simple or as complex as you want. Most recipes are implemented in hours or days rather than weeks or months.

best practices

Recipes don’t need to be complicated; Here are some best practices to keep in mind:

  • Focus on the use cases you want to orchestrate: Think about your business use cases and write them down. A whiteboard or a sheet of paper will do. Are you looking to modernize apps and identity? Do you need to roll out passwordless MFA? Do you want to streamline user sign-up and sign-on experiences?
  • Define the user journey you want for each recipe: The fastest way to create a recipe is to ask: “The users are trying to get something. What do we want to happen?” You can see that the flow of the orchestration starts to take shape.
  • Remember that the ingredients in the recipe are interchangeable: Don’t get stuck on how it will work with any particular component (IDP, authentication, app, etc.). Recipes allow you to swap out one technique for another; For example, if you need to convert a legacy SiteMinder system to Azure AD, just swap out the identity provider, and the rest of the user flow will continue to work.
  • Get Buy-in: Use recipes and their results to gain buy-in from business decision makers and stakeholders by demonstrating the results they can expect. This saves time and money as it is easier to display a recipe on a whiteboard than a software display. It’s also really easy to build and demonstrate a quick proof of concept and then scale it up to hundreds of apps once the business takes off.

final thoughts

Furthermore, recipes can also be adapted to the changing needs as the organization grows. If you have a specific access policy for your employees, you can apply the same recipe to all the apps they use without having to differentiate them. Apply the recipe to 700 applications, and you’re done; No need to make 700 connectors. Making modifications is as easy as replacing bourbon with whiskey in an Old Fashioned cocktail.

Like a Lego kit allowing you to arrive at your desired result faster and more efficiently, the Identity Orchestration recipe provides a holistic approach to solving complex IAM use case challenges.

Want to run a full Linux desktop installation on your Chromebook without leaving ChromeOS? This change will give you access to both full operating systems running side by side so you can switch between them with keyboard shortcuts.

You can already use a “crostini” partition to run different Linux apps with ChromeOS. This method forces users to rely primarily on the command line without the added functionality that a full Linux desktop environment provides. So installing an entire Linux distribution — desktop and all — might be a better option for you.

A few years ago, I used a halfway house to run the KDE desktop on a Chromebook in a Crostini environment. However, that method was buggy. Earlier, I toyed with running GalliumOS from a USB drive to turn a Chromebook into a Linux box without removing ChromeOS.

Crostini, Google’s umbrella term for building Linux applications in ChromeOS, installs a command line version of the Linux OS for running Debian Linux apps on supported Chromebooks.

The built-in Crostini partition lets Chromebook users run Linux apps like Android apps in a virtual-machine-like sandbox running on top of ChromeOS.

An alternative approach involves using croutons. It provides the environment for a full Linux installation, desktop and all. Crouton is a set of scripts that automatically installs the components that make up the Chromium OS-centric chroot generator. The word “chroot” is geekspeak for “change root”.

learn lingo

In theory, Chromebook users should be able to use the chroot utility to install most Linux distributions. However, those Linux communities require someone to create scripts based on where each distro stores its files.

As of now, the chroot utility script available for Chromebook caters to Debian Linux and Ubuntu Linux distros. Installing Linux distros on some Arm-based Chromebooks may not work. Expect better results using a Chromebook running an Intel processor.

Crouton installs the current Ubuntu Xenial release and your choice of four desktops — LXDE, Unity, Xfce, or Gnome — depending on the commands you enter. See details in the Step Four section.

I installed the Xfce desktop and preferred its feature set and configuration options. Although I own several newer and more powerful Chromebooks, I did the installation on the Asus Chromebook Flip model C213S.

First released in July 2017, it runs Intel Celeron CPU N3350 on 4GB of RAM. The unit never bogged down under the stress of running ChromeOS with multiple open browser tabs, Android apps in separate windows, and multiple Linux apps under Crostini.

Set up the preliminaries

It’s safe and reliable to install a full Linux distribution on your Chromebook using the instructions below. It is completely reversible.

Before you begin, we recommend that you back up your existing Chromebook setup. You can restore it with a powerwash or a recovery USB stick. See Google’s help files for details on doing both procedures here.

But generally, all you need to do is go to the Settings menu and toggle off the Linux partition if something unexpected happens. This will remove all traces of the incorrect Linux installation, and there will still be intact ChromeOS waiting for you.

To start, make sure you’re running a current version of ChromeOS. To check the Chrome OS version or update a Chromebook’s operating system, go to Settings > About Chrome OS. Then make sure Linux Partitioning is turned on in the Advanced Settings menu.

Getting Ready for Crouton Alternatives

The built-in Crostini partition cannot handle the Linux desktop. It runs Linux commands through the Command Line Interface or CLI and launches installed Linux apps by clicking on their launcher icons.

Crouton, as in “Chromium OS Universal Chroot Environment”, is beyond that limit. Basically, you have to replace Crostini with Croutons.

Don’t rush this process. Double- and triple-check that you’re following the directions exactly.

It’s unlikely that a misstep will harm the core operation of the Chromebook. But a mistake will generate an error message. If it does, redo the failed step until it works.

Be patient while the process progresses. It will take time to download and install the files. The internal hardware of the Chromebook and the speed of your Internet connection are factors.

Chromebook preparing system for developer mode

The installation should take about 30 to 45 minutes to complete, provided you get everything right.

Step 1: Set up Developer Mode

Close your Chromebook. Then turn it back on by pressing and holding the Esc, Refresh, and Power keys simultaneously. Release all three keys once the prompt for powering on appears on the screen.

When the Chromebook screen is fully displayed, it will show the recovery process screen instead of the ChromeOS screen. Select Advanced options and then select Developer mode. Or you can press Ctrl+D.

ChromeOS Alert: OS Verification is Off

Next, you may see a message asking you to verify the operating system. If so, press Enter.

Then use the arrow keys to scroll down to Advanced options and choose Developer Mode or just press the Ctrl and D keys. The Chromebook should now start in developer mode.

note 1: From this point forward, every time you turn on the Chromebook, it will load into the OS verification warning screen. There is no problem. Just wait 30 seconds for the device to automatically start in ChromeOS or press Ctrl+D to boot immediately.

note 2: You can disable a Chromebook’s developer mode state at any time. do this:

  • First of all, turn it off. Then press the power-on button or lift the clamshell lid from its closed position.
  • When the Chromebook boots up and displays the OS verification message, press the Space bar.

Your Chromebook will be factory reset and returned to its standard configuration. Very easy!

note 3: After reset, you will need to go through user setup for the first time. This is where the above mentioned backup files come in handy. If you had the desktop feature enabled in your previous configuration, you’ll need to reset those flags again to access the desktop. But all your Chrome browser tools and settings will be installed.

Step 2: Download Crouton

This part of the process is quick and straightforward. Download the Crouton file to build the Crouton environment. This will create a pure Linux environment on the Chromebook.

Follow this link to download the crouton files.

Be absolutely sure that you point this to your Chromebook’s Downloads folder and not your Google Drive storage.

Step 3: Completing the Installation

Shut down the Chromebook and restart it. Remember, the Chromebook just won’t load into the expected ChromeOS web browser screen. Instead, it will display the Developer Mode screen. Just press Ctrl+D keys. When the screen updates, press Ctrl + Alt + T to open the Chrome OS terminal and press Enter.

Krosh is welcome

Now type the word “shell” (without the quotes) and press Enter.

important: Be sure to enter the command exactly as shown. Omitting or adding spaces not indicated will result in error messages.

Next, enter or paste this command in Terminal to download the Crouton text file to automatically convert it to an executable file:

sudo install -dt /usr/local/bin -m 755 ~/Downloads/crouton

Press Enter.

Krosh is welcome

You can encrypt the chroot partition with a passphrase for added security. Add -e to the end of the installation command before executing it.

Be aware, however, that this will require that you type in the encryption password you created each time you enter the chroot environment.

Step 4: Choose Your Desktop Pleasure

This is where you have to decide which desktop environment you want to run Ubuntu Xenial. The main command to enter in the terminal is:

sudo crouton -t XXXX

Press Enter. Or, if your Chromebook has a touchscreen, use the following instead:

sudo crouton -t touch, XXXX

Replace XXXX after -t with the desktop you want to install (all lowercase).

As the installation nears completion, you will need to set a password every time you want to enter the Linux distro.

install crosh

Don’t worry about the UNIX reference here. Simply create a password and repeat it at the next prompt.

Croton User Tips

Congratulations! You have successfully changed the configuration of your Chromebook to run a full Linux distribution and desktop. Familiarize yourself with these basic procedures to ensure a hassle-free Linux experience on your Chromebook.

I. To login to the Linux distribution, follow these steps:

  1. When you turn on the Chromebook, press Ctrl+D on the first screen (OS verification off).
  2. press Ctrl+Alt+T
  3. Type: shell and press Enter
  4. Type: sudo enter -chroot startXXXXX and press Enter

important: Do not use XXXXX. Instead, enter the name of the installed desktop in lowercase, with no space after the word “Start”. For example:

sudo enter -chroot startxfce4
sudo enter -chroot startgnome
sudo enter -chroot startlxde
sudo enter -chroot startunity

Linux running on the Asus Chromebook Flip model C213S

Second. Cycle between Chrome OS and Linux desktops without rebooting your Chromebook.

The keys involved differ slightly depending on the architecture of your device:

  • For arm-based machines, use Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Forward and Ctrl+Alt+Shift+Back.
  • For Intel-based machines, use Ctrl+Alt+Back and Ctrl+Alt+Forward; Then Ctrl+Alt+Refresh. (I didn’t have to use the refresh shortcut on my Intel-powered Asus Chromebook.)

How to Remove a Crouton Installation

If you decide that having a full Linux installation on your Chromebook isn’t for you, you can easily remove it. One method was mentioned above, hitting the space bar when the OS verification screen appears. Here’s another option:

Press Ctrl+Alt+T to enter the ChromeOS shell. Then enter this command:

cd /usr/local/chroots

Press Enter. then type:

sudo delete-chroot *

Press Enter. then type:

rm -rf /usr /local/bin

Press Enter.

Chromebook restore options

If something goes wrong along the way, you can restore your Chromebook by retrieving backup files stored on Google Drive. But this method only works if you have already configured your device to automatically back up.

Enter recovery mode by pressing and holding the Esc + Refresh keys simultaneously. Then press the Power button and release it.

last note

Many variables can affect the way a Linux distro loads. These include the make and model of your Chromebook and interim updates to the Crouton installation files that interfere with these current directions.

If you’re unable to enter the chroot partition or load Ubuntu, search the Internet for help, as your Chromebook’s manufacturer or even Google’s support won’t be able to answer your questions.

GitHub is the starting point for researching a solution.

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China’s science ministry announced Monday that the country’s first practical quantum computer had been delivered to a user the agency did not identify a year ago.

The 24-qubit Wuyan system, based on superconducting technology, was built by Origin Quantum Computing Technology, founded in 2017 by two of the country’s leading quantum physicists, Guo Guoping and Guo Guangcan. A qubit in the quantum world performs the same functions as bits in the digital world.

With the on-premises installation of the Wuyan system, China became the third country, after Canada and the United States, to deliver a complete quantum computer system to a customer.

Some skeptics questioned the timing of the announcement.

“Quantum technology is a high priority for national security in China. If it was something very important, I doubt it would be disclosed by the Chinese authorities in a transparent manner,” said a professor at George Mason University’s Mercatus Center in Fairfax, Va. explained senior research fellow Weifeng Zhong.

“The fact that it has been delayed by a year suggests that they have now realized that it is not important for national security, so they are using it to build China’s image as a technology leader. When they are trying to open up. their economy to the rest of the world,” Zhong told TechNewsWorld.

important step

However, Hodan Omar, a senior AI policy analyst at the Center for Data Innovation, a think tank that studies the intersection of data, technology and public policy in Washington, D.C., maintained that the announcement was an important step taken by China. . Quantum Evolution.

“Overcoming the technical challenges that stand in the way of large-scale quantum computers will depend on the ability to scale up the number of qubits in a quantum system, just as modern classical computers rely on increasing the number of transistors in superconducting chips,” Omar said. ” Technewsworld.

“Investing in near-term quantum computing applications helps develop long-term use cases for the technology, thereby helping to improve competitiveness,” he added.

Skip Sanzeri, co-founder and COO of QuSecure, a maker of quantum-secure security solutions in San Mateo, California, called the announcement “formidable,” because China is saying they have a fully functional quantum computer, although the qubit count is low.

“Nevertheless, error correction and noise reduction are two important factors to ensure that a quantum computer can process data and provide applications we can rely on,” Sanzeri told TechNewsWorld. . “By announcing that they have been able to reach this level, it shows that China is making progress towards large quantum computers.”

bucking a trend

The Wuyan system appears to be on par with other systems in the market, said Heather West, a senior research analyst at IDC, an international market research company.

“The fact that they sold a 24 qubit system to anyone is no different than what we’re seeing elsewhere around the world,” West told TechNewsWorld.

Offering a standalone system like WuYan is really bucking the current trend in the market.

“Most quantum computers that people are accessing today are accessed through the cloud,” explained Doug Finke, an analyst at Global Quantum Intelligence, an international market intelligence firm.

“This WuYan computer is being delivered to a customer in an on-premises condition,” Finke told TechNewsWorld. “On-premises has a lot of disadvantages. You have to worry about maintenance. You have to worry about spare parts. You have to worry about calibration.

“Plus,” he continued, “quantum computing innovation is so fast that they become obsolete in about two years. Very few people want on-premises quantum computers. They are more comfortable with the cloud.”

superconducting challenges

The Wuyan system is built using superconducting chip technology, one of the earliest technologies for quantum computers. Since its introduction, other techniques have been explored. These include photonics, trapped ions and neutral atoms.

“At the moment, no one knows which technology will be the winner or if there will be a combination of technologies that will combine for impressive quantum applications,” Sanzeri said.

“Superconducting is very difficult,” he explained. “It requires near-zero Kelvin refrigeration.”

“The electrons used in superconducting quantum computers are very difficult to manage because of their very short coherence times,” he continued. “That’s why they must be cooled to such low temperatures.”

Other methods are managing longer coherence times and a faster path to the desired goal of 1,000 error-corrected qubits, he said.

“The million-dollar question is which technology will win the race for fault-tolerant quantum computers,” West said. “There may not be one winner. There may not be one system that comes out on top. It may be that some types of systems are better than others at solving certain types of problems.”

distant vision

Omar countered that superconducting chips have several advantages over competing technologies.

“First, superconducting qubits are solid-state electrical circuits that are easy to control because they are manipulated using microwaves,” she said. “So scientists can use readily accessible commercial microwave devices and equipment in superconducting quantum computing applications.”

“Second,” he continued, “because fabricating superconducting circuits is based on existing methods of making semiconductor chips, the development of high-quality devices can take advantage of advanced chip-making techniques, which is good for manufacturability and scalability.” “

Despite developments such as China’s Wuyuan system, the advent of quantum computers that can tackle problems beyond the capability of silicon computers appears to be years away.

“Quantum computers are going to be the best for solving complex, intractable problems beyond the scope of classical computer technology,” West said. “Those problems are years away from being solved by quantum computers.”

“To reach that, we need at least a million qubits,” he continued. “It is going to take a lot of work scaling up and stabilizing the qubits. Qubits are very sensitive to external noise. As a result, the technology we have has a high error rate.

Despite the enthusiasm displayed by many, we are still in the early days of quantum computing, said Richard Steinon, founder and chief research analyst at IT-Harvest, a cybersecurity industry analyst firm in Birmingham, Michigan.

“There are many physical constraints on quantum computing that require precision in path length – we are talking microns – and resistance to forces – steps can interfere with that. Supercooled chips just add to the complexity,” Steinen said. told TechNewsWorld.

“I put it in the same area as developing nuclear fusion as an energy source that is usable,” he said. “Hundreds of billions of dollars and decades of progress to be glimpsed.”